dan nessler
digital experience designer

9. Bibliography

The sources consulted in this study.

 

10.1. Web, journals and other sources

Accenture (2016) Technology trends 2016 - Accenture technology vision. Available at: https://www.accenture.com/us-en/insight-technology-trends-2016 (Accessed: 8 September 2016).

Amazon (no date) Amazon echo - black. Available at: https://www.amazon.com/Amazon-Echo-Bluetooth-Speaker-with-WiFi-Alexa/dp/B00X4WHP5E (Accessed: 4 October 2016).

Apple Inc (2016a) Apple events - keynote October 2016. Available at: http://www.apple.com/apple-events/october-2016/ (Accessed: 5 November 2016).

Apple Inc (2016b) IOS 10 - Siri. Available at: http://www.apple.com/ios/siri/ (Accessed: 4 October 2016).

Aube, T. and TechCrunch (2015) No UI is the new UI. Available at: https://techcrunch.com/2015/11/11/no-ui-is-the-new-ui/ (Accessed: 23 August 2016).

BAM and Conant, P. (2016) Chat bots101 - practical insights on the business of bots. Available at: http://www.slideshare.net/BAM-Mobile/chat-bots101-practical-insights-on-the-business-of-bots (Accessed: 20 August 2016).

Beer, A. (2015) Let’s chat! Designing methods for designing Chatbots. Available at: http://botdesign.ai/lets-chat-beer-masters-thesis (Accessed: 9 August 2016).

BI Intelligence and Business Insider UK (2016) Messaging apps are now bigger than social networks. Available at: http://uk.businessinsider.com/the-messaging-app-report-2015-11?r=US&IR=T (Accessed: 20 August 2016).

Brown, B. and BBC America (2010) 15 TV shows starring AI characters. Available at: http://www.bbcamerica.com/anglophenia/2016/09/15-tv-shows-starring-ai-characters (Accessed: 12 November 2016).

Business Insider UK and Leswing, K. (2016) The 5 most valuable public companies are all tech companies. Available at: http://uk.businessinsider.com/4-most-valuable-public-companies-all-tech-companies-2016-8?r=US&IR=T (Accessed: 25 September 2016).

Charlier, M. (2016) ‘The O’Reilly Design Podcast: Designing for the IoT, design’s responsibility, and the importance of team dynamics.’ Interview with Mary Treseler for https://www.oreilly.com/ideas/martin-charlier-on-progressive-approaches-to-iot-design, (Accessed: 23 June 2106).

Connolly, E. and Intercom (2016) Principles of bot design - inside intercom. Available at: https://blog.intercom.io/principles-bot-design/ (Accessed: 29 August 2016).

Debecker, A. and VentureBeat (2016) 3 stats that show chatbots are here to stay. Available at: http://venturebeat.com/2016/08/26/3-stats-that-show-chatbots-are-here-to-stay/ (Accessed: 29 August 2016).

Engadget and Low, C. (2016) Google’s ‘assistant’ is at the core of its new hardware. Available at: https://www.engadget.com/2016/10/04/google-assistant-lands-on-new-pixel-phones/ (Accessed: 5 October 2016).

Engadget and Steele, B. (2016) Bloomberg: Apple moving forward with smart speaker to rival echo. Available at: https://www.engadget.com/2016/09/23/apple-siri-smart-speaker-testing/ (Accessed: 25 September 2016).

Entrecoder (2016) The big 5 tech: Apple, Google, Microsoft, Facebook and Amazon. Available at: http://www.entrecoder.com/the-rise-of-apple-google-facebook-amazon-and-microsoft/ (Accessed: 25 September 2016).

Eyal, N. (2015) Human + A.I. = your digital future. Available at: http://www.nirandfar.com/2015/07/the-message-is-the-medium-3-reasons-apps-as-assistants-work.html (Accessed: 25 August 2016).

Financial Times and Waters, R. (2016) Google uses Assistant to square up to Siri in AI arms race. Available at: http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/f9423056-7efe-11e6-8e50-8ec15fb462f4.html?siteedition=intl#axzz4LFreYV7x (Accessed: 25 September 2016).

Gartner Inc (2016) Top 10 technology trends for 2016. Available at: http://www.forbes.com/sites/gartnergroup/2016/01/15/top-10-technology-trends-for-2016/#719feea5ae93 (Accessed: 8 September 2016).

Godlewski, M. and yeti (2016) Hey Siri, what’s a conversational user interface? Available at: https://yeti.co/blog/hey-siri-whats-a-conversational-user-interface/ (Accessed: 4 October 2016).

Google (2016) Google assistant - your own personal Google. Available at: https://assistant.google.com (Accessed: 5 October 2016).

Google Developers and Pichai, S. (2016) Google I/O 2016 - keynote. Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=862r3XS2YB0 (Accessed: 4 October 2016).

Google and Pichai, S. (2016) #madebygoogle. Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=q4y0KOeXViI&t=204s (Accessed: 23 November 2016).

Google and Pichar, S. (2016) #madebygoogle. Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=q4y0KOeXViI (Accessed: 5 October 2016).

Hay, S. and TechCrunch (2016) Designing for voice differs from traditional UX. Available at: https://techcrunch.com/2016/08/21/designing-for-voice-differs-from-traditional-ux/ (Accessed: 23 August 2016).

Hogan, M., Whitmore, G. and The Guardian (2015) The top 20 artificial intelligence films - in pictures. Available at: https://www.theguardian.com/culture/gallery/2015/jan/08/the-top-20-artificial-intelligence-films-in-pictures (Accessed: 12 November 2016).

Huet, E. and Bloomberg (2016) The humans hiding behind the Chatbots. Available at: http://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2016-04-18/the-humans-hiding-behind-the-chatbots (Accessed: 29 August 2016).

Huge Inc. and van Hoof, P. (2016) The designer’s AI Study guide. Available at: http://www.hugeinc.com/ideas/perspective/the-designers-ai-study-guide (Accessed: 18 August 2016).

Humphry-Baker, A. and bemo (2015) ‘Conversational Uis’, Hyper Island Workshop / Presentation

IDEO (2016) About. Available at: https://www.ideo.com/about/ (Accessed: 30 May 2016).

Jellyvision Inc. (2002) The jack principles. Available at: http://demos.jellyvisionlab.com/downloads/The_Jack_Principles.pdf (Accessed: 24 August 2016).

John McCarth, J. and Stanford University (2007) What is Artificial Intelligence? Available at: http://www-formal.stanford.edu/jmc/whatisai/whatisai.html (Accessed: 5 October 2016).

Kaliouby, R. el (2015) Transcript of ‘this app knows how you feel -- from the look on your face’. Available at: https://www.ted.com/talks/rana_el_kaliouby_this_app_knows_how_you_feel_from_the_look_on_your_face/transcript?language=en#t-626180 (Accessed: 18 August 2016).

Kastrenakes, J. and The Verge (2016) Apple cuts USB-C adapter prices in response to MacBook pro complaints. Available at: http://www.theverge.com/2016/11/4/13524272/apple-cutting-usb-c-adaptor-prices-macbook-pro (Accessed: 5 November 2016).

Kojouharov, S. and VentureBeat (2016) 5 tips for building the next great chatbot. Available at: http://venturebeat.com/2016/07/29/5-tips-for-building-the-next-great-chatbot/? (Accessed: 15 August 2016).

Kuang, C. (2016) What the Tesla death teaches us about designing Driverless cars. Available at: http://www.fastcodesign.com/3062170/what-the-tesla-death-teaches-us-about-designing-driverless-cars (Accessed: 18 August 2016).

Levy, S. (2016a) An exclusive look at how AI and machine learning work at apple – Backchannel. Available at: https://backchannel.com/an-exclusive-look-at-how-ai-and-machine-learning-work-at-apple-8dbfb131932b#.eri46f16g (Accessed: 25 August 2016).

Levy, S. (2016b) Marsbot is dreaming of you – Backchannel. Available at: https://backchannel.com/marsbot-is-dreaming-of-you-f8d476c61f96#.px1uq755y (Accessed: 25 August 2016).

Livingston, T. (2016a) Bots are better without conversation. Available at: https://medium.com/@tedlivingston/bots-are-better-without-conversation-fcf9e7634fc4#.z6qvrx8n5 (Accessed: 20 August 2016).

Livingston, T. (2016b) The future of chat Isn’t AI. Available at: https://medium.com/@tedlivingston/the-future-of-chat-isn-t-ai-b07f65bc252#.9d1byl4j0 (Accessed: 20 August 2016).

MacDailyNews (2010) Microsoft CEO Steve Ballmer laughs at apple iPhone. Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nXq9NTjEdTo (Accessed: 23 November 2016).

Maury, C. (2016) ‘The O’Reilly Design Podcast: Designing conversational experiences.’ Interview with Mary Treseler for https://www.oreilly.com/ideas/chris-maury-on-voice-first-design, 9 June, .

Microsoft (2016) Cortana in more places. Available at: https://www.microsoft.com/en/mobile/experiences/cortana/ (Accessed: 4 October 2016).

Mielke, C. and Smashing Magazine (2016) Conversational interfaces: Where are we today? Where are we heading? – smashing magazine. Available at: https://www.smashingmagazine.com/2016/07/conversational-interfaces-where-are-we-today-where-are-we-heading/ (Accessed: 20 August 2016).

Morse, P. and Deloitte (2016) Tech trends 2016 Innovating in the digital era. Available at: https://www2.deloitte.com/content/dam/Deloitte/ru/Documents/technology/DUP_TechTrends2016.pdf (Accessed: 8 September 2016).

Mortensen, D. and x.ai (2016a) How we’re building our AI assistant with machine learning. Available at: https://x.ai/how-to-teach-a-machine-to-understand-us/ (Accessed: 5 September 2016).

Mortensen, D. and x.ai (2016b) Understanding the Facebook and Microsoft Chatbot revolution. Available at: https://x.ai/understanding-the-facebook-and-microsoft-chatbot-revolution/ (Accessed: 5 September 2016).

Mozur, P. and The New York Times (2016) Chinese tech firms forced to choose market: Home or everywhere else. Available at: http://www.nytimes.com/2016/08/10/technology/china-homegrown-internet-companies-rest-of-the-world.html (Accessed: 20 August 2016).

Nessler, D. (2016) ‘How to apply a design thinking, HCD, UX or any creative process from scratch — digital experience design’, 19 May. Available at: https://medium.com/digital-experience-design/how-to-apply-a-design-thinking-hcd-ux-or-any-creative-process-from-scratch-b8786efbf812#.s2us112ys (Accessed: 4 July 2016).

Newlands, M. and Forbes (2016) 6 disruptive trends in technology for 2017. Available at: http://www.forbes.com/sites/mnewlands/2016/08/31/6-disruptive-trends-in-technology-for-2017/#5ffa138d4ba3 (Accessed: 8 September 2016).

Nicholson, C., Gibson, A. and deeplearning4j (2016) Artificial intelligence, machine learning and deep learning - Deeplearning4j: Open-source, distributed deep learning for the JVM. Available at: http://deeplearning4j.org/ai-machinelearning-deeplearning (Accessed: 5 October 2016).

Nielsen Norman Group and Nielsen, J. (1995) 10 Heuristics for user interface design: Article by Jakob Nielsen. Available at: https://www.nngroup.com/articles/ten-usability-heuristics/ (Accessed: 20 August 2016).

nvidia and Copeland, M. (2016a) The difference between AI, machine learning, and deep learning? | NVIDIA Blog. Available at: https://blogs.nvidia.com/blog/2016/07/29/whats-difference-artificial-intelligence-machine-learning-deep-learning-ai/ (Accessed: 5 October 2016).

Partyline (no date) The future of UI is text. Available at: http://partyline.rocks/blog/futureofui/ (Accessed: 20 August 2016).

Schlicht, M. (2016) The complete beginner’s guide to Chatbots. Available at: https://chatbotsmagazine.com/the-complete-beginner-s-guide-to-chatbots-8280b7b906ca#.n8ueilox6 (Accessed: 5 October 2016).

Shandilya, R. (no date) 10 Principles for Good Design - Dieter Rams | A3 Poster [A3 poster]. Available at: https://www.behance.net/gallery/30229223/10-Principles-for-Good-Design-Dieter-Rams-A3-Poster (Accessed: 6 October 2016). Original Source: https://www.vitsoe.com/gb/about/good-design

Shannon, C.E. (1948) ‘A mathematical theory of communication’, The Bell System Technical Journal, 27, pp. 379–423, 623–656, .

Shapiro, A. (2015) The next big thing in design? Less choice. Available at: http://www.fastcodesign.com/3045039/the-next-big-thing-in-design-fewer-choices (Accessed: 15 August 2016).

Soegaard, M. and Interaction Design Foundation (2016) Hick’s law: Making the choice easier for users. Available at: https://www.interaction-design.org/literature/article/hick-s-law-making-the-choice-easier-for-users (Accessed: 18 August 2016).

Toscano, J. (2016) The ultimate guide to Chatbots: Why they’re disrupting UX and best practices for building. Available at: https://medium.muz.li/the-ultimate-guide-to-chatbots-why-theyre-disrupting-ux-and-best-practices-for-building-345e2150b682#.nnbdbkfzw (Accessed: 27 October 2016).

Trendwatching (2015) Trend Report 2016. Available at: trendwatching.com (Accessed: 7 April 2016).

unit4 and Staven, T. (2016) The era of Artificial Intelligence, (Chat)bots and Digital Assistants – why is this happening now and why is it happening so fast? Available at: http://www.unit4.com/blog/2016/09/the-era-of-artificial-intelligence-chatbots-and-digital-assistants-–-why-is-this-happening-now-and-why-is-it-happening-so-fast (Accessed: 25 September 2016).

uxpodcast (2016) Design doing with Don Norman. Available at: https://medium.com/@uxpodcast/design-doing-with-don-norman-6434b022831b#.o2dp8gpb1 (Accessed: 6 September 2016).

Verber, A. (2016) Chat-Bots vs. Google search — the startup. Available at: https://medium.com/swlh/chat-bots-vs-google-search-b44d11a53f14#.a8seodo0z (Accessed: 20 August 2016).

The Verge and Vincent, J. (2016) Shout at the devil: The confusing world of talking to computers. Available at: http://www.theverge.com/2016/6/28/12038802/apple-siri-amazon-alexa-microsoft-cortana-google-assistant-voice (Accessed: 25 September 2016).

Vitsœ (no date) Dieter Rams: Ten principles for good design. Available at: https://www.vitsoe.com/rw/about/good-design (Accessed: 13 September 2016).

The Washington Post and Dwoskin, E. (2016) Why apple and Google should be worried about Facebook’s new bots store. Available at: https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/the-switch/wp/2016/04/12/why-apple-and-google-should-be-worried-about-facebooks-new-bots-store/ (Accessed: 25 September 2016).

Wilson, F. (2016) Checking in on chat Bots. Available at: http://avc.com/2016/08/checking-in-on-chat-bots/ (Accessed: 20 August 2016).

x.ai and Mortensen, D. (2016) Google, Amazon and the upcoming battle over AI assistants. Available at: https://x.ai/google-amazon-and-the-upcoming-battle-over-ai-assistants/ (Accessed: 25 September 2016).

Zerega, B. and Venturebeat (2016) Slack’s bot strategy aims to bring actionable data closer to users. Available at: http://venturebeat.com/2016/07/12/slacks-bot-strategy-aims-to-bring-actionable-data-closer-to-users/ (Accessed: 20 August 2016).

10.2. Literature

Case, A. (2015) Calm technology: Designing for billions of devices and the Internet of things. United States: O’Reilly Media, Inc, USA.

Garrett, J.J. (2010) The elements of user experience: User-centered design for the web and beyond. 2nd edn. Berkeley, CA: Macmillan Computer Pub.

Colborne, G. (2010) Simple and usable: Web, mobile, and interaction design. Berkeley, CA: New Riders Publishing.

Johnson, J. (2014) Designing with the mind in mind simple: Guide to understanding user interface design guidelines. 2nd edn. Waltham, MA: Morgan Kaufmann Publishers In.

Jongerius, P. and Berghuis, G.H. (2013) Get agile: Scrum for UX, design and development. Netherlands: BIS Publishers B.V.

Krishna, G. (2015) The best interface is no interface: The simple path to brilliant technology. Upper Saddle River, NJ, United States: New Riders Publishing.

Norman, D.A. (2005) Emotional design: Why we love (or hate) everyday things. New York: Basic Books.

Norman, D.A. (2013) The design of everyday things. New York, NY: Basic Books.

Röhner, J. and Schütz, A. (2012) Psychologie der Kommunikation. Wiesbaden: Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden.

Walter, A. and Spool, J. (2011) Designing for emotion. New York, NY: A Book Apart/Jeffrey Zeldman.

 

10.3. Primary research and collaboration sources

Anonymous Users et. al. (2016) Online Feedback & Survey to Dan Nessler, Employee Survey.

Anonymous Tester & Interviewee et al. (2016) ‘HV-Bot Testing & Interview’. Interview with Dan Nessler .

Beer, A. (2016) Google Hangout to Dan Nessler, Expert Interview

Grant, J. (2016) Google Hangout to Dan Nessler, Expert Interview

Hinderling, M. (2016) Interview with Dan Nessler for Project Collaboration

Hinderling Volkart (2016) Interview with Dan Nessler for Project Collaboration

Mortensen, D. (2016) Google Hangout to Dan Nessler, 1 September, Expert Interview

Rapp, S. (2016) Google Hangout to Dan Nessler, Expert Interview

Zumbrunnen, A. (2016) Face to Face to Dan Nessler, 2 August, Expert Interview & uxchat.me Project Collaboration

10.4. Figures

Figure 1: Industry Experts – Interviewees, Visualisation

Figure 2: Expert Interview “Downloading & Clustering”

Figure 3: Revamped Double Diamond (Nessler, 2016), Nessler, D. (2016) ‘How to apply a design thinking, HCD, UX or any creative process from scratch — digital experience design’, 19 May. Available at: https://medium.com/digital-experience-design/how-to-apply-a-design-thinking-hcd-ux-or-any-creative-process-from-scratch-b8786efbf812#.s2us112ys (Accessed: 4 July 2016).

Figure 4: Sample collection of film and TV show artwork

Figure 5: List of of the most valuable US public companies ranked by market cap

Figure 6: “The Big Five” Overview

Figure 7: Schematic diagram of a general communication system (Shannon, 1948), Shannon, C.E. (1948) ‘A mathematical theory of communication’, The Bell System Technical Journal, 27, pp. 379–423, 623–656, .

Figure 8: Visual of messaging key numbers

Figure 9: Messaging vs. social networks (BI Intelligence and Business Insider UK, 2016), BI Intelligence and Business Insider UK (2016a) Messaging apps are now bigger than social networks. Available at: http://uk.businessinsider.com/the-messaging-app-report-2015-11?r=US&IR=T (Accessed: 20 August 2016).

Figure 10: Scripted vs. AI fueled bots

Figure 11: AI vs. ML vs. DL, Nvidia and Copeland, M. (2016), nvidia and Copeland, M. (2016b) The difference between AI, machine learning, and deep learning? | NVIDIA Blog. Available at: https://blogs.nvidia.com/blog/2016/07/29/whats-difference-artificial-intelligence-machine-learning-deep-learning-ai/ (Accessed: 5 October 2016).

Figure 12: Outtakes from process / clustering of design guidelines

Figure 13: Rams 10 principles for good design, (Vitsœ, no date), Vitsœ (no date) Dieter Rams: Ten principles for good design. Available at: https://www.vitsoe.com/rw/about/good-design (Accessed: 13 September 2016).

Figure 14: Overview of UX guidelines

Figure 15: Norman’s (2015)  layers of design visualised, Norman, D.A. (2005) Emotional design: Why we love (or hate) everyday things. New York: Basic Books.

Figure 16: Jellyvision Inc.’s (2002) Jack-Principles visualised, Jellyvision Inc. (2002) The jack principles. Available at: http://demos.jellyvisionlab.com/downloads/The_Jack_Principles.pdf (Accessed: 24 August 2016).

Figure 17: Overview of bot guidelines

Figure 18: Screenshot of uxchat.me

Figure 19: Schulz von Thun’s (2000) four layer model visualised, Röhner, J. and Schütz, A. (2012) Psychologie der Kommunikation. Wiesbaden: Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden.

Figure 20: Grice’s (1975) maxims for good communication, Röhner, J. and Schütz, A. (2012) Psychologie der Kommunikation. Wiesbaden: Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden.

Figure 21: Comparison of bot guidelines and Grice’s (1975) maxims

Figure 22: Guidelines: How to design for New and No User Interfaces in the form of Conversational UIs

Figure 23: Visualisation of initial Hinderling Volkart bot idea

Figure 24: Sprint planning proposal for Hinderling Volkart

Figure 25: Kick Off with Hinderling Volkart management

Figure 26: Outtakes from Status Update presentation for Hinderling Volkart – Purpose & Goals

Figure 27: Outtake from hinderlingvolkart.ch Google Analytics & Analysis

Figure 28: Outtake from user interview and testing presentation

Figure 29: User group and user flow analysis

Figure 30: Use cases & persona workshop outtake

Figure 31: Conversational areas & functionalities workshop outtakes

Figure 32: Conversational areas & functionalities review & approval workshop outtakes

Figure 33: Bot persona workshop outtakes

Figure 34: Employee survey screenshot & user testing

Figure 35: Source data: Conversational flow and data base structure workshop outtakes and conversation .js script snippet

Figure 36: Source data: Visual of rough IA/wireframe after first user testing and resulting 3rd prototype layout

Figure 37: Source data: Conversations visualised as flow chart, in final form as spreadsheet database and in simlified .yml

Figure 38: Source data: 2nd user testing outtakes

Figure 39: 8 HV employee screens with chat initiations (prototype screenshots – state November 2016)

10.5 Videos

Video 1: MacDailyNews (2010) Microsoft CEO Steve Ballmer laughs at apple iPhone. Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nXq9NTjEdTo (Accessed: 25 November 2016).

Video 2: Google (2016) #madebygoogle. Available at: https://youtu.be/q4y0KOeXViI?t=2m20s (Accessed: 25 November 2016).

Video 3: Dan Nessler (2016) Prototype screen recording. Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zIfCmXJT9GM (Accessed: 25 November 2016).


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